Invited Essays
“When is a Panther Not a Panther? Representing Animals in Early Modern English Heraldry.” Early Modern Culture Vol. 11, Article 6. Ed. Holly Dugan and Karl Steel. Clemson University, 2016.

“Literary & Dramatic Heraldry.” In Heralds and Heraldry in Shakespeare’s England, ed. Nigel Ramsay. Donington: Shaun Tyas, 2014.

“Flurty Dames and Pendant Men: Heraldic Literacy and Early Modern English Satire.” In The Display of Heraldry, the first supplemental volume to The Coat of Arms journal, ed. Fiona Robertson and Peter N. Lindfield. London: The Heraldry Society.


Book Project

Page from John Guillim's

Page from John Guillim’s “A Display of Heraldrie” (1610)

Contesting Heraldic Histories brings together historical and literary research to illuminate heraldry’s role as a form of literacy in England during the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Coats of arms were broadly legible, and even attainable, symbols for people of varying occupations and social stations. Pushing against narratives that portray early modern heraldry as tarnished through its association with a broad range of users, I argue that its presence in a wide range of media and disputes over its legibility helped it thrive. As evinced by heraldry’s presence in prose manuals, popular poetry, and stage plays, the economic processes undergirding heraldic production gave it efficacy among both elite and lower-class audiences, particularly when it was used as a satirical tool.